My observations are those of a philosopher thinking about the assumptions of Darwinism. The assumptions discussed here are random mutation, natural selection, and survival of the fittest. I like to use the concepts of “fortunate imperfection” and “practical accumulation” to describe these assumptions, and to summarize the characteristics of objects of nature (in Darwinian terms) as “fortunate accumulations”.
When scientists study objects of nature, particularly living objects or organisms, if they are true to Darwinian assumptions, they will expect to observe fortunate, unfortunate, practical, and impractical characteristics.
One example is the production of fixed-wing aircraft inspired by observations of flying creatures, such as
birds. At first glance it may appear that humans have discovered the essential (fortunate and practical) characteristics of flight (e.g., fixed wings and air speed) by observing flying creatures, while ignoring what are assumed to be the non-essential (unfortunate and impractical) characteristics (e.g., feathers and flexible torsos). There is often a hidden or subconscious assumption that objects produced by humans are superior to objects produced by nature, since the mechanisms and processes of human production are assumed to be superior to those of nature. However, in the example of flight it turns out that certain characteristics such as feathers and flexible torsos are decidedly NOT unfortunate or impractical. They are in fact essential to the advanced flying capabilities of hovering AND gliding exhibited by humming birds but not by helicopters.
It is only when ALL characteristics are assumed to be essential and that objects of nature are NOT necessarily inferior to those produced by humans that advanced flight technologies have been developed. The scientific model that allows for these assumptions is Intelligent Design.